About this Site

Purpose of this Blog is to become a tool and a place where artist that collect and paint flat figures can find interesting links and news about flats, painting techniques, history and various related articles.English speaking related sites are very few but hopefully this blog will provide the collector and the painter with interesting and valuable information about the Art of the Flat Figure and everything related to it.
During the next days I will post any related info I have collected for a long time about various aspects of Flats. Techniques, photos, links, historic articles, anything that is related. Wherever possible I will including the author of the original article. I apologise if sometimes the author's name is not included. It's not intentional but it is lost through time.

Sunday, 22 July 2007

Marshal Jean-BaptisteJourdan

By Panos Charalampakis


Jean-Baptiste, count Jourdan

(Limoges, 1762 - Paris, 1833)

Jourdan, wire of a surgeon, engages at 16 years, in 1778, in the Armies of the king and combat in America. On its return in France, it is reformed for disease and is established as draper. When comes the Revolution, its liberal ideas and its military past make it elect Capitaine of Hunters. He climbs the hierarchical levels and is distinguished in Belgium in 1792. July 30, 1793, it is named major general and obtains little after the command as a head of the Army of North. LE October 16 and 17, it gains the battle of Wattignies. Suspect to have been opposed to the plans of the Committee of the Public Hello, it is relieved but soon recalled and placed at the head of the Army of the Moselle, March 9, 1794. After have take Dinant and Charleroi, it gain the decisive victory of Fleurus, the 26 June 1794, with head of various body which take the name of Army of Sambre-and-Meuse. It beats the Austrians on June 4, 1796 in Altenkirchen. In 1796, beaten beyond the Rhine, it is replaced by Hoche.
Eread with the Council of Cinq-Cents in 1797, it makes vote on March 5, 1798 the law on the conscription which bears its name. In October 1798, it takes the command of the Army of the Danube and beats the Austrians with Stockach (March 26, 1799). But it is obliged to fold up itself and is replaced by the Masséna General. It leaves the army on April 3, 1799.
In October 1799, it starts by being opposed, as a néo-Jacobin and a member of the Council of Cinq-Cents, with the coup d'etat of the 18-Brumaire. However, it joins quickly in Bonaparte. The First Consul, who wishes to be surrounded of the heroes of the Revolution, names it on July 21, 1800 ambassador in Piedmont. It is made advise of State in 1802, then senator and finally marshal in 1804. But Napoleon does not entrust to him significant stations, if not the Army of Italy in 1805.Jourdan follows Joseph Bonaparte to Naples, as governor of the city in 1806 then to Spain. It is named major-General of the Spanish Army. It takes part in the campaigns of Spain in 1808 and 1809. It controls the French Armies at the time of the battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813). Re-entered to France, it remains in a half-disgrace. Napoleon makes it nevertheless even France during the Hundred Days and controlling as a head of the Army of the Rhine. Under the Restoration, Jourdan joins in Louis XVIII who confers the title of count to him, then in Louis-Philippe, who appoints it provisional police chief with the Foreign Affairs, finally governor of the Invalids. It dies in Paris in 1833.

Plate by Marcello Grimaldi

Jean Baptiste Jourdan. He has the classic ceremony coat of Marshall, with gold embroideries in oak leaves. Well distinguished general during the first campaigns after the Revolution and in the Consulate (Italy 1797 and 1800), he was one of first Marshalls created on May, the 19 of 1804.


Marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint Cyr

By Panos Charalampakis

Laurent, marquis of Gouvion-Saint-Cyr
(1812)(Toulon, 1764 - Hyères, 1830)

Bivouac of the battle of Polotsk on August 18, 1812National museum of Versailles and Trianons

Born: April 13, 1764
Died: March 17, 1830
Place of Birth: Toul
Cause of Death: Natural causes

Gouvion, wire of a tanner, is only three years old when his/her mother leaves the residence. After a voyage two years in Italy, he becomes Master of drawing, in Toul then in Paris. In 1792, it decides to engage in the republican army. It is there that it adds Saint-Cyr to his name, to be distinguished from his/her cousins. It fights in the Army of the Moselle. It intelligent, is informed, able, it has an excellent blow ofœit; Gouvion-saint-Cyr climbs the military levels quickly. June 16, 1794, it is already major general, a record of speed. It controls a division with the Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle and is distinguished with the seat from Mainz. In 1798, it receives the provisional command of the Army of Rome, which invades the Papal States and creates the Roman Republic. Gouvion brings back the discipline in the row of the officers, who have just relieved Masséna. It is pointed out on July 26, 1798. It is useful in the Army of Italy and takes part, under Joubert, with the battle of Novi, August 15, 1799. After the battle, it manages to make the junction with the remainder of the army. Quand Masséna comes to replace Joubert, killed with Novi, Gouvion obtains to be affected with the Army of Italy and beats the Austrian armies. For his exploits in Italy, Bonaparte decrees to him the patent of first lieutenant of the Army and a sabre of honor. Affected with the Army of Germany under Moreau, it seizes Freiburg and takes part in the battle of Hohenlinden, December 3, 1800. In 1801, it is charged to assist Lucien Bonaparte in Spain. Two years later, he is a lieutenant of the occupying army in Naples, under Murat. However, it appears a little too independent on the political level with the taste of its superiors. In 1804, it will not be made marshal, but becomes colonel-General of the cuirassiers. In 1805, it is useful in the army which must subject the kingdom of Naples, whose Joseph is the new King.
IL controls an army corps during the program of Poland of 1807. In 1808, one entrusts the command of VIIème body to him, with white card to operate in Catalonia. Gouvion-saint-Cyr aligns victory over victory. In spite of the lack of artillery and ammunition, it manages to take the fort of Pinks on December 4, 1808 and Barcelona. It then receives commands which it considers unrealizable, learns its replacement and leaves its station prematurely. This new mark of independence is worth the stops to him and new forty.
EN 1811, Napoleon recalls it to the Council of State and entrusts to him the command of VIème body of the Grande Armée. Gouvion-saint-Cyr gains battles; he demolishes in particular Wittgenstein with Polotsk, August 7, 1812 and receives the stick of marshal. March 1813, sick, it re-enters to Paris. Controlling an army corps, it takes part in the battle of Dresden (August 26-27, 1813). Napoleon entrusts the defense of the city to him, but with court of food and ammunition, it capitulates on November 11, 1813. He is a prisoner until June 1814. When it returns to France, Louis XVIII is on the throne and A named Pair of France. With the return of Napoleon of the island of Elba, Gouvion, in Orleans, makes carry the white rosette to its men.

Plate by Marcello Grimaldi

Laurent Gouvion Saint CyrRepresented here with the uniform of Colonel General of the Cuirassiers, personally studied for him to wear during the ceremony of the "Sacre", when Napoleon self proclaimed Emperor. Talented artist, painter, student of the Roman Empire and fine arts, and also actor of theatre, he began the military career as drawer of maps for the French Army.





Marshal Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte

By Panos Charalampakis

Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte

Portrait by Kinson
National museum of the castle of Versailles and Trianons

The only case of independent success in the entourage close to the Emperor. Bernadotte, which one called Sergent Beautiful-Leg, is the single marshal who crosses the Revolution and the Empire to finish on a throne!
This lawyer wire enrôle in the royal army in 1780. It is the Revolution and the war with Austria which enable him to become officer. Kléber names him sergeant general. In 1797, Bernadotte leaves the Army of the Rhine to give his support for Bonaparte to Italy.After the peace of Campoformio, Bonaparte gives him a command subordinate. The Directory entrusts to him a short mission of ambassador in Vienna then appoints him Minister of the War from July to September 1799. Bernadotte reorganizes the army, then badly in point, but the Directors end up drawing aside him. His antipathy for Bonaparte becomes manifest. He refuses to engage frankly in the strike of State of the 18-Brumaire, which is worth a reputation of néo-Jacobin to him. Become controlling Army of the West, his name is mixed with the conspiracy with «the pots with butter»(in which circulated of the tickets anti-Bonapartists). Moreover, he marries Désirée Clary, formerly been engaged to Bonaparte, now sister-in-law of Joseph.He becomes marshal in 1804 and prince of Laying-Corvo two years later, although there remains discrete in the great battles, as in Austerlitz for example (December 2, 1805). At the time of the double battle of Auerstadt and Iéna, October 14, 1806, Bernadotte, which has the role of supporting the body of Davout to the catches with the large one of the Prussian army, awaits the evening to move! Napoleon does not seem to hold rigour of it to him.On the other hand, when it is a question of continuing the remainders of the Prussian army, he fits the boots of seven miles to traverse all Prussia from the south in north. After having forced the Prussians of Blücher to capitulate in open country, he treats the officers of Swedish division made captive with Lübeck with courtesy and respect. This behavior, specimen with the eyes of the Diet of Stockholm, as well as the desire of Sweden to approach France to counter Russia, has an unexpected consequence: August 21, 1810, the States General of Œretro choose this French marshal as hereditary prince of Sweden. Napoleon will not oppose it, would be this only because one French marshal on the throne of Gustave-Adolphe is one of the prettiest turns played in England.For the moment, he still fights under the commands of Napoleon. It is during the campaign of Poland, in 1807, that he shows his best control of the command. He folds up brilliant manner towards the Russian armies of Benningsen, making it possible to Napoleon to engage the maneuver of Eylau (February 8, 1807).
On the other hand, his body takes part neither in this last battle, nor with that of Friedland (June 14, 1807). Bernadotte is finally relieved by the Emperor for control of the Saxon body of which he has the command at the time of the battle of Wagram (July 5-6, 1809). His body does not manage to take the Prussian lines and is folded up in rout at the time of the first day of the battle (July 5). The following day, whereas the forces under the command of Napoleon are victorious, he launches an eulogistic proclamation to his troops, which had relaxed the day before.Bernadotte, called near the Swedish throne, August 21, 1810, cherished by Charles XIII, appears a true Swedish. He abjures Catholicism and takes with care the businesses of his future kingdom. The interests of his new fatherland run up against those of France. If Bernadotte yields initially to the injunctions of Napoleon and declares the war in England, he reconsiders his decision since 1812 and signs an alliance with the tsar, Alexandre 1st. In 1813, Sweden enters in the coalition against France. Bernadotte brings an army of 30 000 men and his knowledge of the napoleonian tactics . His army beats Oudinot at Gross-Beeren (August 23, 1813) and Ney at Dennewitz (September 6, 1813). In Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), he once again shows good maneuver, but avoids directly crossing iron with his rival.
At the time of the campaign of France, in 1814, Bernadotte controls the Army of North. He invades his old fatherland while passing by Holland and Belgium. Without being determining, his role was very significant in the rout of the French Army. Some speak about him like future king of France. It will not be the case, but he obtains Norway, January 14, 1814, in reward of his services. February 5, 1818, he succeeds Charles XIII, under the name of Charles XIV, king of Sweden and of Norway. He is the ancestor many monarchs who reign today still in Sweden in Norway, but also in Luxembourg, in Belgium and in Denmark. Beautiful course for the former republican sergeant Beautiful-Leg, which one says that he carried on the chest Mort «tattooing to the kings»!

Plate by Marcello Grimaldi
Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte. This rare uniform of Republican style is reprised from a portrait executed in 1807, already in the Imperial period, out of spite to Napoleon, cordially hated. Bernadotte would represent his love for Republican period and democracy, because he did not want an Emperor and his power. Owing to his contrast with Napoleon, when the Kingdom of Sweden, allied with France after some years of wars, asked to Napoleon for an heir for his old King Charles XIII, after the death of the crown Prince, Napoleon was very happy to send away Bernadotte. But he became King, with the name of Charles XIV, and betrayed his Country, entering in war during the campaign of 1813 with the Coalison against Napoleon and France.

Marsal Jean Lannes

By Panos Charalampakis

Jean Lannes,
duke of Montebello,
Marshal (1804).
(Lectoure (Gers), 1769 - Vienna, 1809)

In uniform of under-Lieutentenant with the 2nd Battalion of Gers in 1792, by Guerin.

National museum of Versailles and Trianons

Born: April 10, 1769
Died: May 31, 1809
Place of Birth: Lectoure
Cause of Death: Mortally wounded at Aspern-Essling

This wire of stable boy gives up his work of apprentice dyer for enrôler in a battalion of volunteers in 1792. Its courage returns it quickly celebrates. Drawn aside for political reasons in 1795, whereas he is an already head of brigade, he re-enlists the following year for the campaign of Italy, like private. He is under the commands of the General, Bonaparte, who quickly restores it with the rank of head of brigade. Lannes is one of those which precipitate ahead with the bridge of Lodi (May 10, 1796) to encourage the soldiers to face enemy artillery. November 14, it receives two balls with battle of Arcole. The following day, learning that the fight continues, it saddle its horse and precipitates on the place of the battle, to fall soon disappeared after having received a blow on the head.
He is still in Rivoli (January 14, 1797) two months, hardly given later. Bonaparte, who noticed his exploits, eulogistically quotes it in his report/ratio and names it brigadier general. The two men become friendly. Lannes will not be able to cease besides addressing as tu the Emperor lately crowned. After Rivoli, Lannes takes the town of Imola. The pope decides to conclude a treaty. Bonaparte dispatches Lannes to him. This last, while it discusses pleasantly with sovereign pontiff, restores the command in the Papal States, in particular by the arrest and the execution of some leaders.
C' is then the campaign of Egypt, in 1798. Lannes is distinguished particular lies to the head office of Saint-Jean d' Acre (March 19 at May 20), where it is seriously wounded. In Aboukir on July 25, 1799, it takes fears it Turkish with the head of two battalions. Named major general, it re-enters to France with Bonaparte to take part in the coup d'etat of the 18-Brumaire. The First Consul entrusts the command of the consular Guard to him. At the time of the second campaign of Italy, with the head of the avant-garde, it fights in Montebello (June 9, 1800) and in Marengo (June 14, 1800). At the time of this last battle, it contains the Austrian attack during seven hours.
He is made marshal on May 19, 1804. It controls the 5th body at the time of the campaign of Austria of 1805 and the left wing with Austerlitz, December 2. It takes part in the campaign of Prussia in 1806 and beats prince Louis of Prussia with Saalfeld. Present still with Iéna (October 14, 1806), it controls the center of the Grande Armée there. Wounded in Pultusk (December 26, 1806). It takes again to it command lies of an army corps. It controls the avant-garde of the Grande Armée with Friedland and resists during four hours the attacks of the Russian army of Benningsen. In 1808, it is in Spain where it gains the battle of Tudela and directs the head office of Saragossa. It is made duke of Montebello. It remains in Spain until 1809.
Napoléon calls it near him for the campaign of Austria. It takes part in the operation of Landshut and takes part in the battle of Eckmühl (April 22, 1809). Its body is present at the seat of Ratisbon, and it empart him even of a scale to climb the walls. One of its aide-de-camps arrives at in empêcher.A Aspern, Lannes advances on the troops of the Charles archduke to divide them into two. The manœuvre succeeds but the bridges which make the junction between the two parts of the French Army are broken. The men of Lannes find themselves isolated under Austrian fire. Their head is with the face when it receives a ball of gun. Transferred onto rifles towards the island of Lobau, it is cut down by the two legs. During six days, Lannes fails. The Emperor comes to collect his last words. May 31, 1809, it succumbs in Vienna where it was transported. Its body rests in the Pantheon. Lannes is the first marshal of Empire died in the combat.

Plate by Marcello Grimaldi

Jean Lannes, one of the three Marshalls died in battle (Bessières and Poniatowski the others). Honest, courageous and well estimated by Napoleon. Here he has a red coat, instead of the classic blue, to remember his charge on 1807 of Colonel General of the Swiss troops included in the French Army